Supongamos que tenemos una aplicación solar y que tras hacer el análisis concluimos que se requiere un panel de 100W. Sin embargo, al medir en condiciones reales el panel sólo genera 70W, ¿Cuál es la razón de este desfase?
Lo primero es entender que el valor reportado por el fabricante del panel es un valor estándar en condiciones de laboratorio. Estas condiciones incluyen radiación directa de 1000 W/m2, una temperatura del panel de 25ºC y un espectro solar acorde con masa de aire AM1.5G (camino que los rayos del sol recorren en la atmósfera). Sin embargo, las condiciones reales pueden diferir mucho de las condiciones de laboratorio:
- Dependiendo del nivel de nubosidad y la altura sobre el nivel del mar se puede tener mayor o menor radiación solar con lo cual la densidad de potencia no será exactamente 1000 W/m2. En muchas regiones de Colombia se presenta mucha nubosidad con lo cual la densidad de potencia es más cercana a 800 W/m2.
- Para las condiciones climáticas en el país, un panel solar expuesto a radiación solar directa aumenta su temperatura hasta 65ºC aproximadamente. Esta temperatura difiere considerablemente de la temperatura estándar de 25ºC. Esto es muy relevante porque la potencia generada por el panel se reduce a mayor temperatura. Sólo por esta razón, nuestro panel estándar de 100W puede caer a valores entre 75 – 88 W.
- Finalmente, el espectro solar depende mucho de la latitud y de la altitud. Difícilmente se corresponderá a la condición de laboratorio AM1.5G.
Por las anteriores razones es que encontramos que al evaluar un panel solar de potencia estándar 100W en condiciones reales puede generar sólo 70W. Acá estamos suponiendo que el panel es probado con radiación solar directa y a una hora cercana al mediodía. Si se presentan perdidas mayores puede deberse a problemas con la manufactura del panel. Esta realidad hace imprescindible probar la tecnología en condiciones reales de operación. En MasLightSolar partimos de la verificación de tecnología para dimensionar adecuadamente nuestros productos solares.
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